Biology Key Points Notes 2nd Year PDF Download. F.sc Biology part 2 all chapters important key Points(cramming notes). Biology Key Points Notes for 2nd Year Students is a new PDF download that has everything you need if you want to study biology in college or university or just want to review key points about biology before any test.
This download makes it easy to study biology, even if you didn’t pay attention in class. It has more than 50 pages of notes and diagrams that explain everything you need to know. Also, this free PDF that you can download has extra materials that you won’t find anywhere else.
Biology Key Points Notes 2nd Year
Here is a list of all chapter’s Biology key points notes. First look at the table of contents given below
- Support and Movement
- Nervous Coordination
- Chemical Coordination
- Development and Aging
- Chromosomes and DNA
- Man and his Environment
- Biology and Human Welfare
If you’re taking a biology class, you might learn about biochemistry, cell biology, anatomy and physiology, microbiology, genetics, and evolution, among other things. To pass your tests, you need to know about these important molecules and how they work together.
In other words, it’s important to know how each one works in cellular processes like making energy, expressing genes, and more. Some of these connections are easy to forget while studying, which is why we made our Biology Key Points Notes set. It gives students a quick way to look up information as they study.
Cells are the basic building blocks of life:
One or more cells make up every living thing. A cell is a tiny bag that holds all of the molecules that an organism needs to live and grow. These molecules include DNA, RNA, proteins, and many others. For example, if you cut open a human hair, which has protein in it.
You would find that it is made up of many tiny cells that also have protein in them. Under a microscope, you could look at something as simple as a red blood cell and see that it is made up of many smaller parts. All living things on Earth are made up of these tiny parts: Only cells make up things that are alive!
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells:
Every cell is made up of molecules and has either one or two membranes. The size, complexity, and number of organelles in prokaryotic cells are different from those in eukaryotic cells. Because they don’t have organelles like a nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, or centrioles, prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells. Every time, eukaryotic cells are more complicated than prokaryotic cells.
They have complex structures inside each cell that do things like make proteins and make muscles move when they contract. This paper gives a simplified explanation of how prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms changed over time to become what they are today.
Fat and protein are what make up the cell membrane. Lipids, which are long chains of hydrogen and carbon molecules, are also called fats. They give shape and support to cells. Cell membranes are important for life because they control what goes in and out of a cell.
They have pores or holes that let nutrients into the cell, but only certain things can get through. Cells get the energy they need to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from the food they eat. ATP then does specific jobs inside cells. Without ATP, our bodies couldn’t do as many important things as they do now, like breathe, think, and move.
Organelles are the parts that make up the endomembrane system. The name “endomembrane system” refers to two different things: -The Complex of the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Pores -Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum -Golgi Apparatus (including cis, medial, trans).
Vacuoles Each group is named after its most important part. Rough ER has ribosomes attached and helps make lipids, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. Smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached and helps break down lipids and proteins. The vacuole stores water, waste, and food while enzymes in the lysosomes break them down into their basic parts.
It makes a double membrane around the nucleus of a cell, which keeps everything inside the cell. The nuclear envelope has two layers: a double layer on the outside called the outer nuclear membrane and a single layer on the inside called, you guessed it, the inner nuclear membrane.
Small pores connect the inner and outer membranes. Ions can move in and out of cells through these pores. These pores also let RNA move from one side of a cell to the other. This lets new proteins be made on one side of the cell and put out into the bloodstream on the other.